The Science of Personal Training

Effective personal training means you successfully achieve the goals and results you desire.
When you invest time, effort and commit to improve your health, happiness and wellbeing, it's important to have someone that has the appropriate knowledge, cares about your journey and can provide a safe effective personalized program for your specific needs.
Everybody’s body type and structure is unique, there is no one size fits all.
Prior to commencement of your program we want to know about your goals, assess for injuries, biomechanics and fitness elements, therefore ensuring you are on track to attain the best results possible.

There are many types of training programs such as:
  • Sports Specific
  • Rehabilitation
  • Injury Prevention
  • Weight Loss
  • Muscle Gain
  • Body Balance
  • Health and Fitness

Strength and Conditioning

Similar to personal training strength and conditioning coaches will prescribe exercise to increase their client’s fitness.
The main difference is that strength and conditioning coaches work primarily with specific sports, aiming to improve their client’s skills and athletic performance.

Every sport requires a specific focus and combination of underlying qualities to improve athletic performance. This usually means a systematic and periodised approach to strength, power, speed and agility training.
Ultimately increasing the athlete’s performance by manipulating resistance-training program variables such as volume, intensity, rest, frequency, and duration are considered essential elements for maximizing neuromuscular adaptations.

By nature competition and conditioning programs can be fairly rigorous and demanding on the musculoskeletal system.
Our other goal is to maintain the athlete uninjured and competitive by reducing the possibility of injuries common to the specific sport.
This may be achieved by monitoring loads and a specific program designed to strengthen and condition body parts that are prone to increased loading during competition.

Specific Adaptations to Strength Training
There are many variable factors that underpin the strength training methods available to enhance force production and improve sporting performance.
The type of strength training method determines the specific adaptations that occur in the muscle tendon unit, and are transferable to sport. Strength adaptation may be expressed as: isometric strength, maximal dynamic strength and reactive strength.


Muscle Hypertrophy
The increase in muscle size, or cross sectional area (CSA) following resistance training is called Hypertrophy.
The increase in muscle mass achieved by bodybuilders is a good example of musculoskeletal adaptation and hypertrophic response to higher volumes resistance training.
Resistance training elicits a combination of neural and muscular adaptations, which increase the muscles ability to grow by incorporating more muscle proteins into each cell (accretion) contributing to hypertrophy.
The resultant increase in CSA and strength gains with resistance training, are favorably transferable to a force producing capacity in a sporting movement.


Although power and strength are interdependent, they are not the same.
Strength is the ability of the muscles to generate force without concern for distance or speed.
Power is a product of force, and is defined as the rate of producing work at a speed, displacement or velocity, and is the essential quality for explosive movements, running fast and jumping high.

Power may be expressed by these three equations:
Power (W)= work (j)/ time(s)
Power (W) = force (n) x displacement (m) / time (s)
Power (W) = force (N) x velocity (m/s) / time (s)

It’s important for a novice athlete to develop a foundation of strength prior to any power training, as power is a bi-product product of force as can be seen in the above equations.

Force Velocity Curve

The Force-Velocity curve demonstrates the inverse relationship between force and velocity.
There is always a tradeoff as demonstrated by the F-V graph. 
As force increases on the Y-axis velocity decreases, inversely as velocity increases on the x-axis force decreases.
The fundamental basis of developing greater power is the athlete’s ability to develop maximum strength, therefore shifting the force-velocity curve to the right, leading to the production of high rates of force in a short period of time.


G G Haff, N T Tripplett. 2016. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, Fourth Ed. NSCA. Human Kinetics.

J B Lauersen, T E Andersen, LB Andersen. 2018. Strength training as superior, dose dependent and safe prevention of acute and overuse sports injuries: a systematic review, qualitative analysis and meta-analysis. BJSM, on line first, 21 August

M McGuigan.2017. Developing Power, NSCA. Human Kinetics.

B Schoenfield. 2016. Science And Development of Muscle Hypertrophy. Human Kinetics.

B Schoenfield. 2018. Evidence- based guidelines for resistance training volume to maximize muscle hypertrophy. Strength and Conditioning Journal. NSCA; 40(4) 107-112

T Soligard, M Schwellnus, J M Alonso et al. 2016. How much is too much? (Part1) International Olympic Committee consensus statement on load in sport and risk injury. BJSM; 50 (17).

T J Suchomel, S Nimphius, C R Bellon, M H Stone. 2018. The Importance of Muscular Strength: Training considerations. Sports Medicine: 48 (10).

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